Table of Contents

Introduction 6

The California Gold Rush and
Indian Boarding Schools 9

Indian Boarding Schools 11

Reservations and Political
Definitions 15

World War One 16

The Origin of World War Two 21

The European Theater 23
Neil McKinnon (Yurok) 25
Frank Richards (Tolowa) 30
Sharon Wasson (Paiute) 36
Wally Scott (Yurok) 40
Ulysses Davis (Hupa/Yurok) 44
Floyd Richards (Tolowa) 46
John Peconam (Mountain Maidu) 47
Glenn Moore, Sr. (Yurok) 57
Leland Washoe & Jim Washoe (Washoe/Pit River) 61
Charles Lindgren (Yurok) 65
Johnny Smith (Mountain Maidu/Pit River) 67
Chuck Donahue (Yurok/Karuk) 71
Frank Martin (Koncow Maidu) 72
Tommy Merino (Mountain Maidu) 74
Lena Swearington (Karuk) 78
Stanley Lowry (Mountain Maidu/Pit River) 85
Frank Ames (Yurok) 91
Al Valadez, Sr. (Paiute/Mountain Maidu) 93
Frank Dowd (Yurok) 97
Alfred McCovey (Yurok) 100
The Home Front 104
Chuck Williams (Yurok) 104
Vernon Numan (Paiute/Shoshone) 110
Dee Rouse (Yurok) 112
Jimmy James (Yurok/Hupa) 116
Bill Evans (Paiute/Pit River) 120
Don Preston (Pit River/Paiute) 122
Louie Melendez (Paiute) 125

The Arsenal for Democracy 130
Georgiana Trull (Yurok) 130
Edith Fogus (Hupa) 132
Josie Valadez (Paiute/Pit River/Maidu) 134
Josephine Peters (Karuk/Yurok) 137

The Pacific Theater 139
Mervin Evans (Pit River/Shoshone) 142
Ned Crutcher (Paiute/Shoshone) 147
Lee McCardie (Hupa/Yurok) 153
Lee Hover (Karuk) 154
Gene Ryan (Mountain Maidu/Pit River/Washoe) 160
Frank Grant (Karuk) 164
James Campbell, Sr. (Hupa) 168
Archie Thompson (Yurok) 174
Jack Madero (Paiute/Mountain Maidu) 176
Jack Risling (Karuk/Yurok/Hupa) 178
Harold Blake (Yurok) 185
Les Ammon (Hupa) 187
Elmer Rossig (Wiyot) 189
Ed Mitchell (Yurok) 191
Kenny Childs (Yurok) 195
Dave Risling (Karuk/Yurok/Hupa) 197
Kenny Sanderson (Yurok) 204
Bill Rossig (Wiyot) 207
Willard Carlson (Yurok) 210
Darrell McCovey (Yurok) 214
Wilbur Smith (Paiute/Maidu/Pit River) 217
Reuben Green (Tolowa) 222
Grant Hillman (Karuk) 225
Francis Allen (Pomo) 231
Charlie Bowen (Mountain Maidu) 236
Wally Griffin (Yurok) 241
Leonard Lowry (Mountain Maidu/Pit River) 245

In Memoriam 249

In Remembrance 256

Epilogue 259

Notes 264

Bibliography 266

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